Kuchařský lexikon

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Farce - stuffing.

Fahrenheit - a temperature scale with 32*F as the freezing point of water and 212*F as its boiling point (to convert to Celsius, subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit, multiply by 5 and divide by 9).

Fajitas - a Mexican-American dish consisting of strips of skirt steak marinated in lime juice, oil, garlic, red pepper and then grilled; the diner wraps the meat in a flour tortilla and garnishes it with items such as grilled onions, peppers, guacamole, pico de gallo, refried beans, sour cream and salsa; chicken, pork, fish and shellfish (usually shrimp) can be substituted.

Farfalle - Italian for butterfly; used to describe bow-shaped pasta.

Farfel - a soup garnish made of minced noodle dough.

Fell - a thin, papery tissue found on the outside of the surface of a leg of lamb.

Fennel - a perennial plant (Foeniculum vulgare) with feathery foliage and tiny flowers; the plant's oval, green-brown seeds have prominent ridges, short, hair-like fibers and a weak, anise-like flavor and aroma and are available whole and ground; used in baked goods and savory dishes in Italian and Central European cuisines and to flavor alcoholic beverages.

Fenugreek - an Asiatic herb with a bitter celery-like flavor. Its chief use is in curry powders and stews.

Feta - 1. A soft Greek cheese made from ewe's milk (or occasionally, goat's milk) and pickled in brine; has a white color, crumbly texture and salty, sour, tangy flavor. 2. A soft, white, flaky American feta-style cheese made from cow's milk and stored in brine.

Fettuccine - Italian for small ribbons; used to describe thin, flat ribbons of pasta; sold as straight ribbons or loosely bent and curled.

Fig - a variety of oblong or pear-shaped fruits (Ficus carica) that grow in warm climates; generally, they have a thick, soft skin that is green, yellow, orange or purple, tannish-purple flesh with a sweet flavor and many tiny edible seeds; available fresh or dried.

Filé - powder made of sassafras leaves used to season and thicken foods.

Filet or Fillet - a boneless cut of meat, poultry or fish.

Fillet Mignon - a small cut of beef taken from the end of the fillet, considered by many to be the most elegant steak of all. It is very tender and sweet, but lacks the flavor of a steak with bone in.

Filo - in Greece, philo is the very flaky, buttery pastry made by layering dough with shortening and rolling it and rerolling it.

Fine - term used for good brandy.

Finely - very small, as in finely chopped, but not as small as minced.

Fines Herbes - French, “fine herbs”, usually a mixture of parsley, chives, tarragon, and chervil used to flavor omelets and in casseroles and soups.

Finnochio - also fennel in Florence; an herb with a licorice flavor, used as is celery and in Mediterranean cooking.

Finger Bowls - bowls half-filled with warm water which may be scented with roses or a slice of lemon. Served to diners to rinse their hands in after a course in which the fingers were used to eat (lobsters, oyster, or artichokes, or example).

Fish - any thousands of species of aquatic vertebrates with fins for swimming and gills for breathing, found in saltwater and freshwater worldwide, most are edible; fish are classified by bone structure as flatfish or round fish.

Fizz - a sweet effervescent summer drink made of gin and a carbonated beverage.

Flake - to break off small pieces or layers of food, usually with a fork; often used as a test for doneness when cooking fish.

Flambe - to flame, using alcohol as the burning agent; flame causes caramelization, enhancing flavor.

Flamber - to cover or combine food with heated liquor, then set alight, and serve flaming. It also means to singe. Heating the liquor first is the secret to keeping the flame going.

Flan - in France, a pastry filled with fruit, cream or custard; in Spain, a set custard usually served with a caramel sauce.

Flapjacks - in the United States and Canada a another name for pancakes, griddlecakes and hotcakes. In England and Scotland, a name for drop scones.

Flatbrod - flat bread of Norwegian origin, it is wafer-thin, and made from whole grain and served with salad, cheese or soup.

Flavor - to add seasoning or other ingredients to a food or beverage to improve change or add to the taste.

Flavoring - an item that adds a new flavor to a food and alters its natural flavors; flavorings include herbs, spices, vinegars and other condiments.

Flip - a sweet drink containing alcohol and eggs. Originally, it was a heated drink but a cold flip is more common today.

Florets - the small, closely-clustered "flowering" part of a food, such as broccoli or cauliflower.

Florentine - food set on a bed of cooked spinach and usually covered with a cream sauce and baked. From Florence, Italy.

Flour - 1. Powdery substance of varying degrees of fineness made by milling wheat, corn, rye or other grains or grinding dried vegetables (ex. mushrooms), fruits (ex. plantains) or nuts (ex. chestnuts). 2. To coat with flour.

Flute - to make a decorative edge on pastry. Also to cut vegetables, fruit or other foods in a decorative manner. Also a long loaf of French bread.

Flummery - 1. A sweet soft pudding made of stewed fruit (usually berries) thickened with cornstarch. 2. Old-time British flummeries were made by cooking oatmeal until smooth and gelatinous; sweetener and milk were sometimes added. In the 18th century, the dish became a gelatin-thickened, cream- or milk-based dessert, flavored generously with sherry or Madeira.

Focaccia - This Italian bread begins by being shaped into a large, flat round that is liberally brushed or drizzled with olive oil and sprinkled with salt. Slits cut into the dough's surface may be stuffed with fresh rosemary before the bread is baked. Focaccia can be eaten as a snack, or served as an accompaniment to soups or salads.

Foie Gras - an hors d’oeuvres of seasoned livers of geese, duck, chicken, or veal made into a pâté.

Foil, aluminum foil - a thin pliable sheet of aluminum; easily molded, conducts heat well, can withstand temperature extremes and is impervious to odors, moisture and air; used to cover foods for cooking and storage.

Fold - to gently combine one ingredient with another ingredient (as in folding dry ingredients into moist ingredients) by using two motions, cutting vertically through the mixture with a spoon or spatula and gently turning the ingredients over on top of each other, rotating the bowl 1/4 turn with each stroke. The term often is used in instructions relating to whipped cream and beaten egg whites.

Fold in - to mix food without releasing air bubbles by lifting a part of the liquid from the very bottom of the bowl through the rest of the mixture to the top until the foods are blended.

Fondant - a sweet, thick opaque sugar paste commonly used for glazing pastries or making candies.

Fondue - a melted sauce, usually with cheese, served with crisp bread rounds or as a filling. These are sauces kept hot in a chaffing dish into which crisp chunks of bread, vegetables, meat, or fruits are dipped before eating. Chocolate fondue with fruit chunks and berries is a sweet fondue that is excellent. Fondue means melted.

Fontina Cheese - An Italian semifirm, yet creamy cheese made from cow's-milk. Its interior is pale yellow in color and is dotted with tiny holes and its rind is a dark yellowish brown. It has a mild, nutty flavor and melts easily and smoothly, making it a good choice for use in most cooking. Although fontina cheese (also called Fontina Val d'Aosta after the Italian valley from whence it came) is an Italian cheese, other countries including Denmark, France and the United States also make fontina cheese but they tend to be blander and softer (especially when younger) than the Italian original.

Food Chopper - a knife created for efficiency. It is double-handled and crescent-shaped, used with a rocking motion to rapidly chop and dice. In Italy it is known as a mezzaluna. Less useful today, since food processors do much of this work.

Food Mill - A kitchen utensil best described as a mechanical sieve. It has a hand-turned paddle that forces food through a strainer plate at the bottom, thereby removing skin, seeds and fiber. Some food mills come equipped with several interchangeable plates with small, medium and large holes.

Food Processor - This kitchen appliance was brought to the United States from France in the 1970s and has since revolutionized a majority of home kitchens. It consists of a sturdy plastic work bowl that sits on a motorized drive shaft. The cover of the bowl has a feed tube through which foods can be added. An expanded feed tube — large enough for some whole items such as a tomato or onion — is available with some machines. The food processor is efficient and speedy and can easily chop, dice, slice, shred, grind and puree most food. The larger machines can also knead dough. Most processors come with a standard set of attachments including an S-shaped chopping blade and several disks for slicing and shredding. There are special attachments including juicers and pasta makers, as well as accessories such as French-fry cutters, julienne disks and beaters. Food processors range from large to small in motor size and bowl capacity.

Fool - England is the home of this old-fashioned but delicious dessert made of cooked, pureed fruit that is strained, chilled and folded into whipped cream. The fruit mixture may be sweetened or not. Fool is traditionally made from gooseberries, though today any fruit may be substituted.

Forcemeat - finely ground meat often combined with ground vegetables to make a stuffing or combined with stiffly beaten egg whites to make delicate quenelles for poaching and serving with sauce. Also, combined with custard-like sauce to make soufflés.

Frangipani - a rich, sweet cream name for a tropical flower with a sweet scent.

Frappé - a drink whipped with ice to make a thick, frosty consistency.

Freeze - to subject food to a temperature below 32*F (0*C) so that the moisture in the food solidifies; used as a preservation method.

Freezer Paper - a plastic-coated Kraft paper used for wrapping foods for freezing and for general household purposes. The plastic coating provides a barrier to air and moisture to protect the quality, flavor and nutrition of foods during freezing; the paper provides strength and durability as well as an easy-to-write-on surface.

Fresh - 1. A food that has not been frozen. 2. A food that has been recently produced, such as a loaf of bread. 3. A food as grown or harvested; not canned, dried or processed and containing no preservatives.

French Fry - to cook food in deep hot fat.

French Toast - American breakfast of sliced bread dipped into beaten eggs and milk and then cooked on top a stove.

Fricassee - a stew, usually of poultry or veal.

Frijoles - Mexican beans.

Fritter - vegetable or fruit dipped into, or combined with, batter and fried.

Frosting - a cooked or uncooked sugar mixture used to cover and decorate cakes, cookies and other foods.

Fruit Butter - a sweet spread made of fruit cooked to a paste then lightly sweetened. Apple butter is a common example.

Frumenty - a popular food in English history, it is a rich, sweet porridge high in vitamins A and B.

Fry - to cook in fat (a) Pan-Fry - To cook in small amount of fat. (b) Deep-Fat Fry - To cook in enough fat to completely cover food while cooking.

Fumet - a concentrated stock used to give body to sauces.

 
© 2009 Ondřej Koubek | Food Photography © Marek Neuman 2009 | vytvořil F&S