Kuchařský lexikon

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Galantine - a cold jellied dish of boned chicken, veal, game or fish.

Gallon - an American unit of measurement equal to 128 fluid ounces; contains 8 pints (16 fluid ounces each).

Game - wild animals and birds hunted for sport. Cooked, they are leaner and less fat-sweetened than domestic animals.

Gammon - the same cut of pork as ham, though cured differently.

Garbanzo bean - see chickpea.

Garbure - a casserole or stew made of cabbage, beans, potatoes and pork or bacon.

Garlic - a member of the lily family (Allium sativum); the highly aromatic and strongly flavored edible bulb (called a head) is covered in a papery layer and is composed of several sections (called cloves), each of which is also covered with a papery membrane; used as a distinctive flavoring in cuisines around the world.

Garlic Powder - finely ground dehydrated garlic; used as a seasoning; also known as powdered garlic.

Garlic Salt - a blend of garlic powder, salt and an anticaking agent or humectant; used as a seasoning.

Garnish - to enhance a dish before serving with an edible decoration or accompaniment, which is appealing to the eye and complements the flavors of the dish.

Gastrique - a French term meaning to form a glaze by reduction. Some of the more common gastriques are the tarragon, pepper shallot and vinegar reductions for a classic bearnaise sauce or the red wine, herb and pepper reduction for a poivrade sauce.

Gateaux - 1. French for cake. 2. In the United States, any cake-type dessert. 3. In France, various pastry items made with puff pastry, éclair paste, short dough or sweet dough.

Gazpacho - an iced soup made with fresh ripe tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet peppers, onions, and seasonings, marinated overnight. Mexican in origin.

Gefilte Fish - a traditional Jewish dish of poached stuffed fish, whole or in balls, served hot of cold.

Gelatin; Gelatine - a colorless, odorless and flavorless mixture of proteins from animal bones, connective tissues and other parts as well as from certain algae (agar agar); when dissolved in a hot liquid and then cooled it forms a jelly-like substance used as a thickener and stabilizer in molded desserts, cold soups, chaud-froid creations and the like and as a fining agent in beer and wine.

Genoese - a light cake made of eggs, sugar, butter and cake flour. Genoese is known for its versatility. It can be used for baked alaska, lady fingers, an iced birthday cake.

Ghee - clarified butter used in Asian cooking. (see Clarified Butter). Click here for making your own Ghee.

Gherkin - small cucumber species 1 1/2 inches long, for pickling.

Giblets - the heart, liver, gizzard and neck of fowl and small game, used to make stews, soups and specialty dishes.

Gigot - French term for a leg of lamb.

Ginger Beer - a milky alcoholic drink that is effervescent and ginger flavored. Made with gingerroot.

Ginger, Ginger root - the gnarled, bumpy rhizome (called a hand) of a tall flowering tropical plant (Zingerber officinale) native to China; has a tan skin, ivory to greenish-yellow flesh, a peppery, fiery, slightly sweet flavor with notes of lemon and rosemary and a spicy, pungent aroma; used to flavor beverages and in sweet and savory dishes in Asian and Indian cuisines; available fresh, powdered, preserved in sugar, crystallized, candied or pickled.

Gizzard - part of the alimentary canal of fowl, whose function is to “grind” food, sometimes with pebbles swallowed for this purpose.

Glacé - to glaze with sugar syrup; also, to serve iced.

Glaze - any shiny coating applied to a food or created by browning. In meat preparation, a jelled broth applied to meat surface; in breads and pastries, a wash of egg or syrup; for doughnuts and cakes, a sugar preparation for coating.

Glogg - hot wine cup served at Christmas; Swedish.

Glucose - also, dextrose. A natural sugar found in fruits, vegetables, honey and other products.

Gluten - a water-soluble protein found in flour. Kneading flour in bread-making brings out the smooth elastic qualities of the gluten content.

Gnocchi - dumplings made from a paste of flour or potatoes and egg.

Gougère - Gruyère-flavored Choux Pastry that is piped into a ring shape before being baked. A gougère can be served hot or cold as an appetizer or snack.

Goulash - also, gulyas, a rich Hungarian stew made of meat, highly seasoned with paprika.

Gourd - a squash-like vegetable, usually dried and used as a fall decoration.

Graham Flour - a wheat flour similar to wholemeal flour, ground from the whole grain.

Gram (g) - the basic measure of weight in the metric system; 28.35 grams = 1 ounce, and 1000 grams ( a kilogram) = 2.2 U.S. pounds.

Granola - a mix of grains, nuts and dried fruits, sometimes coated with oil and honey, eaten for breakfast or as a snack.

Grappa - a brandy distilled from the stalks and grape skins that remain after the wine has been pressed. See eau-de-vie.

Grapes - smooth-skinned, juicy berries (with or without seeds) that grow in clusters; members of the genus Vitis, they are used for wine-making, raisins and eating out of hand.

Grate - to reduce a larger piece of food to smaller particles by rubbing it against a coarse, serrated surface, either by the use of hand-grater or a food processor.

Grater - a square metal or plastic instrument with perforations stamped in it against which goods can be rubbed to break off particles.

Gravy - a sauce made from meat or poultry juices combined with a liquid (ex. milk, broth or wine) and a thickening agent (ex. flour or cornstarch).

Grease - to cover the cooking surface of a pan or dish with a fat to keep foods from sticking to it.

Great Northern Bean - a large, flat, kidney-shaped white bean; has a delicate flavor and is generally available dried.

Green Bean - a long, slender green pod that contains several small seeds; the entire crisp pod is edible; also known as a string bean (because of the fibrous string that runs down the side; modern varieties do not have this fiber), fresh bean and snap bean.

Green Onion - See Scallion.

Grenadin - thin slices of fillet of veal, larded and braised.

Grenadine - a red sugar syrup made from pomegranate juice, and used to flavor drinks and to sweeten food.

Griddle - a flat pan often of cast iron, used for cooking pancakes, omelets or steaks on top of the stove.

Griddle Cakes - in the United States and Canada a another name for pancakes, flapjacks and hotcakes. In England and Scotland, a name for drop scones.

Gridiron - a metal frame used to hold meat or fish as it cooks over a flame.

Grill - 1. To cook on a grill. 2. Cooking equipment in which the heat source (gas, charcoal, hardwood or electric) is located beneath the rack on which the food is placed; it is generally not enclosed, although it can be covered.

Grind - to reduce food to particles by using a food chopper.

Grits - Coarsely ground dried corn, served boiled, or boiled and then fried.

Ground Cherry - a berry sometimes called husk tomato, it is used to make preserves.

Groundnut - a peanut.

Gruyère Cheese - Swiss Gruyère is named for the valley of the same name in the canton of Fribourg. This moderate-fat, cow's-milk cheese has a rich, sweet, nutty flavor that is highly prized both for out-of-hand eating and cooking. It's usually aged for 10 to 12 months and has a golden brown rind and a firm, pale yellow interior with well-spaced, medium-size holes. It's made in 100-pound wheels that are cut into wedges for the market. Gruyère is also produced in France and several other countries.

Guacamole - a Mexican dip, sauce or side dish made from mashed avocado flavored with lemon or lime juice and chiles; sometimes chopped tomatoes, green onion and cilantro are added.

Gum Arabic - a preservative made of sugar, water, and powdered acacia. It is used with leaves such as mint and rose.

Gumbo - soup or stew made with okra as a main ingredient. The term also describes the okra plant.

Gum Tragacanth - a gum from plants found in Iran, Turkey and Greece, it is used as a thickener and a base for ice cream powder and gelatinous desserts.

© 2009 Ondřej Koubek | Food Photography © Marek Neuman 2009 | vytvořil F&S